Publication type: Research article.
Author(s): Antun Pfeifer, Luka Herc, Ilija Batas Bijelic, Neven Duić.
Keywords: Energy & materials, Sustainable development.
Recent ”Green deal” of European union includes the decision to become carbon neutral and even carbon-negative region in order to tackle the climate crisis. Such decision includes energy transition from energy production based on fossil fuels to the system based on variable renewable energy sources. Main technical challenge and a key factor in the techno-economic analysis of the energy system of the future, based on variable renewable energy sources, is their variable production. In order to deal with this problem in long-term energy planning, different approaches have been tried, focusing on overcapacity, storage capacities and sectors coupling with heating and transport. In this research, different flexibility options, storage and demand response technologies are modelled on several levels of energy systems: national, regional and continental. With the case study area including all EU countries modelled in EnergyPLAN model, the goal of the research is to show how each flexibility option influences the production capacities of renewable energy source technologies, storage technologies and demand response in order to reach a certain share of renewable energy in final energy consumed. Climate differences were taken into account for modelling of the behaviour of flexibility options, which is shown to be relevant for the creation of their representative curves. Representative curves are created as functions of critical excess electricity produced and share of renewable energy integrated into the system. Results show representative curves of most relevant flexibility options for several regions of EU and for the whole EU as one region. These results are further discussed in terms of strategic
decisions addressing the dynamics of integration of such technologies, i.e. deciding on the priority of their integration in the energy system of the region in consideration. Results of research can be applied for integrated assessment models, in long-term planning of energy transition towards carbon-negative energy systems.